The consolidated Group financial statements consist of the financial statements of the Company, all entities controlled by the Company (its subsidiaries) and the Group's share of its interests in joint ventures.
The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date on which power over the operating and financial decisions is obtained and cease to be consolidated from the date on which power is transferred out of the Group. Power is achieved when the Company has the ability and right, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity. This ability enables the Company to affect the amount of economic benefit generated from the entity's activities. This is evident for all of the Group's subsidiaries per Note 5.1.
Ocado Polska Sp. Z.o.o. has a year end of 30 November 2016, as the Poland Accounting Act requires a financial year to be 12 full calendar months from the prior year end date. Ocado Spain S.L.U. has a year end of 31 December 2016, as established in its articles of association. There was no material movement between the reporting date of the Group and the reporting dates of these entities.
All other subsidiaries have a year end of 27 November 2016.
All intercompany balances and transactions, including recognised gains arising from inter-Group transactions, have been eliminated in full. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same manner as recognised gains except to the extent that they provide evidence of impairment.
The Group's share of the results of joint ventures is included in the Consolidated Income Statement using the equity method of accounting. Investments in joint ventures are carried in the Consolidated Balance Sheet at cost plus post-acquisition changes in the Group's share of the net assets of the entity, less any impairment in value. The carrying values of the investments in joint ventures include acquired goodwill.
If the Group's share of losses in a joint venture or associate equals or exceeds its investment in the joint venture, the Group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred obligations to do so or made payments on behalf of the joint venture.
Unrealised gains arising from transactions with joint ventures are eliminated to the extent of the Group's interest in the entity.
The principal accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements are set out in the relevant notes to these financial statements. Accounting policies not specifically attributable to a note are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied to all the periods presented, unless otherwise stated.
Foreign Currency Translation
Functional and Presentation Currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates ("the functional currency"). Sterling is the Company's functional and the Group's presentation currency.
Transactions and Balances
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions or valuation where items are remeasured. Foreign exchange gains or losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement, except when deferred in equity as qualifying cash flow hedges.
Foreign exchange gains and losses that relate to borrowings and cash and cash equivalents are presented in the Consolidated Income Statement within finance income or finance costs. All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in the Consolidated Income Statement within operating profit.
The results and financial position of all the Group entities (none of which has the currency of a hyper-inflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:
- assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet;
- income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exchange rates (unless average is not a reasonable approximation of the cumulative effect of the rates prevailing on the transaction dates, in which case income and expenses are translated at the rate on the dates of the transactions); and
- all resulting exchange differences are recognised as a separate component of equity.