Intangible assets comprise internally generated assets relating mainly to computer software and other intangible assets relating mainly to externally acquired computer software and assets, and the right to use land. These are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and any recognised impairment loss. Other intangible assets such as externally acquired computer software and software licences are capitalised and amortised on a straight-line basis over their useful lives of three to fifteen years. Costs relating to the development of computer software for internal use are capitalised once all the development phase recognition criteria of IAS 38 "Intangible Assets" are met. When the software is available for its intended use, these costs are amortised in equal annual amounts over the estimated useful life of the software. Amortisation and impairment of computer software or licences are charged to administrative expenses in the period in which they arise. For the Group's impairment policy on non-financial assets see Note 3.2.
Amortisation of intangible assets is calculated on a straight-line basis from the date on which they are brought into use, charged to administrative expenses, and is calculated based on the useful lives indicated below
|Internally generated assets||3–15 years, or the lease term if shorter|
|Other intangible assets||3–15 years, or the lease term if shorter|
|Right to use land||The estimated useful economic life, or the lease term if shorter|
Amortisation periods and methods are reviewed annually and adjusted if appropriate.
The cost of internally generated assets is capitalised as an intangible asset where it is determined by management's judgement that the ability to develop the assets is technically feasible, will be completed, and that the asset will generate economic benefit that outweighs its cost. This is in line with the recognition criteria as outlined in IAS 38 "Intangible Assets". Management determine whether the nature of the projects meets the recognition criteria to allow for the capitalisation of internal costs, which include the total cost of any external products or services and labour costs directly attributable to development. During the year management have considered whether costs in relation to the time spent on specific software projects can be capitalised. Time spent that was eligible for capitalisation included time which was intrinsic to the development of new assets to be used or monetised by the Group, the enhancement of existing warehouse and routing systems capabilities, or improvements to applications used by the Group's customers.
Other development costs that do not meet the above criteria are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs previously recognised as an expense are not recognised as an asset in a subsequent period.
Research expenditure is recognised as an expense as incurred. These are costs that form part of the intent of gaining new knowledge, which management assess as not satisfying the capitalisation criteria per IAS 38 "Intangible Assets" as outlined above. Examples of research costs include, but are not limited to, the following: salaries and benefits of employees assessing and analysing future technologies and their likely viability, and professional fees such as marketing costs and the cost of third party consultancy.
In certain circumstances, some assets are ready for use, but are not performing as intended by management. Development costs that relate to the enhancement or modifications of existing assets are capitalised until the asset is performing as intended by management. Management assess the capitalisation of these costs by consulting the guidance outlined in IAS 38 "Intangible Assets" and exercise judgement in determining the qualifying costs. When unsure if the enhancement or modification costs relate to the development of the asset or are maintenance expenditure in nature, management treat the expenditure as if it were incurred in the research phase only in line with IAS 38 guidance.
Internally generated assets consist primarily of costs relating to intangible assets which provide economic benefit independent of other assets, and intangible assets that are utilised in the operation of property, plant and equipment. These intangible assets are required for certain tangible assets to operate as intended by management. Management assess each material internally generated asset addition and consider whether it is integral to the successful operation of a related item of hardware, can be used across a number of applications and therefore whether the asset should be recognised as property, plant and equipment. If the asset could be used on other existing or future projects it will be recognised as an intangible asset. For example, should an internally generated asset, such as the software code to enhance the operation of existing CFC equipment, be expected to form the foundation or a substantial element of future software development, it has been recognised as an intangible asset.
Of the internally generated assets capitalised, 22% (2015: 19%) relates to asset additions within property, plant and equipment.
Estimation of Useful Life
The charge in respect of periodic amortisation is derived by estimating an asset's expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. Increasing an asset's expected life or its residual value would result in a reduced amortisation charge in the Consolidated Income Statement.
The useful life is determined by management at the time the software is acquired and brought into use and is regularly reviewed for appropriateness. For computer software licences, the useful life represents management's view of the expected period over which the Group will receive benefits from the software.
For unique software products developed and controlled by the Group, the life is based on historical experience with similar products as well as anticipation of future events which may impact their useful life, such as changes in technology.
Where the right to use land has been granted, the period over which the amortisation is charged is the lower of the estimated useful economic life and the lease expiry date.
|Internally Generated Assets|
|Other Intangible Assets|
|Total Intangible Assets|
|At 30 November 2014||65.6||13.2||78.8|
|Internal development costs capitalised||24.1||—||24.1|
|At 29 November 2015||83.0||17.6||100.6|
|Internal development costs capitalised||34.9||—||34.9|
|At 27 November 2016||117.6||22.3||139.9|
|At 30 November 2014||(36.6)||(3.8)||(40.4)|
|Charge for the period||(12.4)||(0.8)||(13.2)|
|At 29 November 2015||(43.1)||(4.6)||(47.7)|
|Charge for the period||(11.8)||(0.8)||(12.6)|
|At 27 November 2016||(55.0)||(5.2)||(60.2)|
|Net Book Value|
|At 29 November 2015||39.9||13.0||52.9|
|At 27 November 2016||62.6||17.1||79.7|
Included within intangible assets is capital work-in-progress for internally generated assets of £20.0 million (2015: £21.7 million) and capital work-in-progress for other intangible assets of £3.3 million (2015: £7.2 million).
The net book value of intangibles held under finance leases is analysed below:
|Net Book Value||3.1||4.5|
For the 52 weeks ended 27 November 2016, internal development costs capitalised represented approximately 88% (2015: 85%) of expenditure on intangible assets and 22% (2015: 19%) of total capital spend including property, plant and equipment.