Accounting Policies

Derivative Financial Instruments

Derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the contract date and are subsequently measured at their fair value at each balance sheet date. The method of recognising the resulting fair value gain or loss depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument and the nature of the item being hedged. At 27 November 2016 and at 29 November 2015, the Group's derivative financial instruments consisted of commodity swap contracts which are designated as cash flow hedges of highly probable transactions.

The Group documents at the inception of the hedge the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, the risk management objectives and strategy and its assessment of whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items.

This assessment is performed retrospectively at each financial reporting period. Movements on the hedging reserve within shareholders' equity are shown in the Consolidated statement of comprehensive income. The full fair value of hedging derivatives is classified as current when the remaining maturity of the hedged item is less than 12 months.

Cash Flow Hedging

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated as cash flow hedges and qualify for hedge accounting is recognised in other comprehensive income. Amounts accumulated through other comprehensive income are recycled in the Consolidated Income Statement in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss. When the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of property, plant and equipment, the gains or losses previously deferred in equity are included in the initial cost of the asset and are ultimately recognised in profit or loss within the depreciation expense. During the period all of the Group's cash flow hedges were effective and there is therefore no ineffective portion recognised in profit or loss.

Commodity Swap Contracts

The notional principal amounts of the outstanding commodity swap contracts at 27 November 2016 were £4.8 million (2015: £3.2 million). The hedged highly probable forecast transactions are expected to occur at various dates during the next 12 months. Cumulative net gains of £0.6 million have been recognised in the hedging reserve within other comprehensive income. The net balance at year end was £nil. These gains and losses are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement in periods during which the hedged forecast transaction affects the Consolidated Income Statement.

27 November
2016
£m
29 November
2015
£m
Commodity swap contracts
Derivative asset0.3
Derivative liability(0.2)(0.7)
0.1(0.7)

Forward Foreign Exchange Contracts

There were no outstanding forward foreign exchange contracts at 27 November 2016 and 29 November 2015 .

There are £0.1 million of gains recognised in the hedging reserve within Other Comprehensive Income (2015: £0.2 million).

These gains were recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement in periods during which the hedged forecast transaction affected the Consolidated Income Statement.

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